THE US BECOMES A WORLD
(1898 - 1917)
#1 - 1985
- How and why did the Monroe Doctrine become a cornerstone of
United States foreign policy by the late 19th c?
#2 - 1986
- "Both the Mexican War and the Spanish-American War were
premeditated affairs resulting from deliberately calculated
schemes of robbery on the part of a superior power against weak
and defenseless neighbors." Assess the validity of this statement.
#3 - 1992
- Compare the debates that took place over American expansionism
in the 1840's with those that took place in the 1890's, analyzing
the similarities and differences in the debates of the two eras.
- A. What is foreign policy?
- B. What nations are considered "world powers" today?
- What makes the U.S. a "world power"?
- When did we become a world power?
- C. Do world powers have any particular rights or
responsibilities because of their status?
- D. The U.S. did not enter world politics until the 1890's;
- (preoccupied - Reconstruction, Winning the West,
- E. Our rise to world power was a consequence of our:
- 1. Geographic position
- 2. Our natural resources
- 3. Our dynamic energy
- a. Physical and industrial growth led to a larger navy
to protect investments
- b. Led to an activist foreign policy
- F. Foreign policy is almost always an extension of domestic
policy...needs, wants, ideals
- G. What should be our goals/purposes in determining foreign
- 1. Our national security
- 2. Promotion of world trade and to better our economic
opportunities at home
- 3. A sense of mission in encouraging freedom around the
- promoting "self government"
- 4. Altruism (humanitarianism)
- 5. Morality - "do the right thing"!
- 6. Improving our image at home and abroad
II. Early U.S. Foreign Policy - "isolation"
- not making permanent commitments with foreign countries
A. "Cornerstones" of Early U.S. Foreign Policy (Before 1890)
- 1. George Washington's Farewell Address (1797)
- a. Further U.S. trade
- b. Avoid "entangling (permanent) alliances"; temporary ones
for expediency ok
- Thomas Jefferson would reaffirm it
- "Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations,
entangling alliances with none"
- 2. Monroe Doctrine (1823)
- a. Came out of turmoil in Latin America
- b. Warning to Europe to stay out of western hemisphere!
- c. It would give us a chance to grow without worrying about
- d. It would "evolve"
- 1) No Annexation!
- 2) No Transfer!
- 3) No Coercion!
- 4) No Oppression!
- e. We got lucky, England decided to work with us instead of
against us (trade possibilities)
B. Trade-Related Foreign Policy
- 1. China
- a. GB exposed weakness of China in the Opium Wars (ended in
- b. Caleb Cushing - 1844
- c. Treaty of Wanghia - opened 5 ports
- 1) "most favored nation" status
- 2) "extraterritoriality"
- d. By 1890's, lots of trade and missionary activity
- 2. Japan
- Commodore Matthew Perry - 1854
- "Black ships" (black smoke) and "toys" of the Industrial
- Treaty of Kanagawa (1858)
- opened 2 ports (for their own good)
- established "most favored nation" status for U.S.
- 3. Coaling Stations (with interests in the Pacific)
- a. Midway - annexed in 1867
- b. Samoa
- 1) 1872 - Comm. R.W. Meade got chieftan to sign over use
of Pago Pago
- 2) 1878 - Samoa became a "protectorate" (first
- 3) 1880's - GB and Germany made similar arrangements
with other chieftans
- 4) 1889 - near war (hurricane)
- 5) 1890 - triprotectorate pact
- 6) 1899 - GB out, divided between U.S. and Germany
- 7) 1929 - formally added to U.S. territory in an act of
- c. Hawaii
- 1) 1820's - missionary activity
- 2) 1840's - center of Pacific whaling industry
- 3) 1850's - sugar-growing (plantations)
- 4) 1875 - reciprocal trade treaty (sugar)
- 5) 1887 - got exclusive use of Pearl Harbor
- 6) 1890 - McKinley Tariff - hurt sugar business!
- 7) 1891 - Queen Lilioukalani led revolt to rid
island of all foreigners
- 8) 1893 - U.S.navy backed coup
- led by Am. Minister, John L. Stevens and Sanford
- 9) 1898 - annexation (during Tr. of Paris debate)
- 10) 1959 - statehood!
C. Civil War-Related Foreign Policy
- 1. Great Britain
- a. Alabama Claims
- b. Treaty of Washington (1871)
- 1) U.S. awarded $15.5 million (had to pay $5m to GB)
- 2) Agreed to work cooperatively on fishing, lumber
rights and sealing in Canada
- 2. France
- 1863 - Maximilian and Carlota
- At end of Civil War
- warned France to withdraw (Monroe Doctrine)
- sent 50,000 troops to Rio Grande
- France withdrew support and its army
- 1867 - Maximilian and Carlota executed (Benito Juarez)
- as a warning to other "would be" intruders!
- 3. Russia
- a. 1867 - sold Alaska for $7.2 million (2
- b. "Seward's Folly" - Seward died in disgrace
without knowing true worth
- c. Got rid of another European power
- d. 1898 - gold discovered (and later oil)
III. Motives for U.S. Expansion
- By 1890's, the U.S. would abandon its traditional policy of
"isolation" and launch one of "imperialism"
- (exerting control over another nation)
- (spreading a country's influence beyond its borders).
- What would be the effects? On the U.S.? On countries involved?
On the world?
- Why did we become expansionist? Was it the right decision?
1. European Example (1870s and 80s)
- a. Which country was first imperialistic nation?
- b. Why a renewed interest in the 1870s and 80s?
- c. Countries wanted "empires", judged as a world power by its
- (would we want to be left out?)
2. Profits - Trade (enhanced by the Industrial Revolution)
- a. Raw materials
- b. New markets (for surpluses)
- c. Nations want a "favorable balance of trade" (by 1880s, U.S.
- d. From 1870-1890, sale of American products doubled!
- e. New investments (mines, rr, plantations)
3. Patriotism - Nationalism ("Jingoism")
- Failure to expand a sign of decay! Greatness measured by
- Alfred Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power upon
- led to the "Large Policy"
- 1) Power through naval strength
- 2) Needed colonies (coaling stations)
- 3) Inter-oceanic canal
- 4)America must "look outward"
- Led to the Naval Act (1890) - began construction of the "White
- ("Great White Fleet")
- 1) From sail to steam, from wood to iron ships (1880s)
- 2) Our navy had been 12th largest in the 1880's
- 3) After 1890 - 3rd (behind GB and FR)
- Two of Mahan's converts were
- TR - assistant secretary of navy
- Henry Cabot Lodge
- a leading Senator from Mass. advocating the "new
- pushed through the Naval Act of 1890 - Head of Senate
Foreign Relations Comm.
4. Piety - Racial Supremacy
- a. Reinforced by the idea of "Social Darwinism"
- (again, foreign policy is usually an extension of domestic
- b. "Force of good" (like Carnegie's "Gospel of Wealth")
- c. "The white man's burden" (Rudyard Kipling
- we followed the example set by GR and Germany
- d. Josiah Strong - Our Country (1885) - Anglo-
Saxon institutions are "fittest"
5. Publicity - Politics
- 5. Close of Frontier
- a. Look beyond our borders
- b. Frederick Jackson Turner
- c. "New Manifest Destiny" (expansionism to imperialism)
- 6. Divert Attention (from domestic matters)
- a. Agrarian depression
- b. Panic of '93 (effects felt until 1897)
- c. Clamoring for reform (progressivism)
- C. Motivating Ideas
- 1. National honor (weren't we proud of our growth?)
- 2. Commerce/Trade (where to get raw materials? where to
- 3. Racial superiority (reinforced by Social Darwinism, so
prevalent during the Gilded Age)
- 4. Altruism ("uplifting" others) (shouldn't we be the force
Was imperialism the correct course for the U.S. to follow?
(strongly agree, agree, undecided, decided, strongly agree)
- Inquiry on Spanish-American War
IV. Spanish-American War
- We had come close to war with England, France, even Chile! In
1898, we would get a "splendid little war" with Spain! One that
would last, from start to finish, 115 days!
- Economic interests in Cuba (had long wanted the island only
90 miles from U.S.)
- Cuba's relationship with Spain
- 1868 - "Cuba Libre" movement began (lots of U.S.
- 1873 - Virginius Affair (supplying arms to rebels)
- 1) Cuban ship flying Am. flag, many Am. sailors
- 2) Spain stopped ship, tried crew, began executing
- 3) Spain paid $80,000 indemnity when we protested!
- 1893 - Wilson-Gorman Tariff
- took sugar off the duty free list
- (price of sugar fell from 8 cents a pound to 2
cents...led to a severe depression!)
- 4. The islanders revolted (believed themselves to be a
- a. Insurgents - used guerrilla tactics, "scorched earth"
- b. Spain sent Gen. Valeriano Weyler ("The
Butcher") to crush the rebellion
- 1) "Reconcentrado camps" (removed peasants from the
country-side to camps in the cities) in which some
200,000 Cubans died!
- Yellow Press - Tales of Spanish atroccities (propaganda and
- 5. Became a target of the "yellow press" (a war
might increase circulation/readership)
- a. William Randolph Hearst - NY Journal
- b. Joseph Pulitzer - NY World
- 6. Became a campaign issue in 1896 election
- a. Pressure by Am. business
- b. "Jingoes" ("itching" for a war!)
- c. McKinley, the winner, urged Spain to give Cuba more
autonomy (Spain refused to grant independence)
- War with Spain - two events made it inevitable:
- Feb. 9, 1898 - DeLome Letter
- (called McKinley a "would be politician")
- TR had called him a man with the backbone of a chocolate
- forced McKinley to take action
- Feb. 15, 1898 - U.S.S. Maine exploded in Havana
- (260 American crewmen died)
- ("Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain")
- The American people demanded action!
- April 11 - McKinley sent a war message to Congress; warned
Spain to get out of Cuba!
- April 25 - Spain declared war on U.S.
- We claimed war existed since April 21 (?)
(added Teller Amendment, no territorial ambitions!!!)
The war (lasted 115 days)
- 1. Began in the Philippines
- a. May 1 - Comm. George Dewey attacked Spanish fleet
at Manila Bay
- b. Assault on island (Emilio Aguinaldo)
- 2. Cuba
- a. Our Navy established a "blockade"
- b. U.S. army was in deplorable state!
- (only 28,000 called for 200,000, 274,000 would serve)
- c. June 14 - landed at Daquiri, 15 mi. east of Santiago
- (met Sp. army of 200,000, but ill- equipped)
- d. July 1 - charged San Juan Hill ("Rough Riders")
- e. July 14 - Santiago surrendered
- (after Adm. William Sampson destroyed remaining Sp.
- f. Aug. 12 - Spain surrendered
3. Treaty of Paris
- (signed Dec. 10; ratified by one vote more than the required
2/3, 57 to 27, on Feb. 6, 1899)
- a. Independence for Cuba
- b. Spain ceded
- Puerto Rico
- c. U.S. paid $20m
- a. 5,462 U.S. died (379 in battle)
- b. Cost $250 million
- c. U.S. now had an empire!
- 1) During the war annexed Hawaii
- 2) Also claimed Wake Island
- d. Would have to protect and defend them!
V. The Imperialism Debate
- formed in Nov., 1898
- (Jane Addams, Samuel Gompers, Mark Twain, William Jennings
Bryan, Andrew Carnegie)
- what were their arguements?
- What would the U.S. do with an overseas empire?
- Does the Constitution follow the flag? Strong debate.
- (went against the dem. principles found in the Declaration of
Independence and the Constitution)
- (it would be costly to protect colonies)
- Others argued that imperialism was our duty
- it would increase bases
- improve our status among the countries of the world
- and European powers were doing it! (our "destiny")
- SC ruled that there were two types of terr. possessions (to be
governed, and had some Const. rights) in 1901; would basically be
dealt with by Congress as it saw fit
- 1. "Incorporated" - destined for statehood (Hawaii and
- 2. "Unincorporated" - not destined (Phil., Guam, Puerto
- Governing our new possessions
- What rights for our new inhabitants?
- Did the Constitution follow the flag?
- SC ruled that there were "fundamental rights" (for all) and
- "procedural rights" (those given by Congress, like trial by
- Decisions were not easy!
- 1. Puerto Rico
- a. 1900 - Foraker Act - citizenship, governing
- (gov. and council appointed by U.S. President and
- b. 1916 - Jones Act - became a U.S. territory
- c. 1952 - commonwealth status (own const., elected
- d. Statehood?
- 1) Can vote in pres. elections (but no electoral votes)
- 2) Can advise Congress, but no vote
- 3) No federal income tax
- 2. Cuba
- a. Teller Amendment - forbade annexation
- b. After war, military occupation under Gen. Leonard Wood
- (cleaned up island - Dr. Walter Reed) lasted
- c. 1901 - Platt Amendment - U.S. had the right to
intervene (did so 3 times by WWI).
- Cuba could not make debts it could not repay
- couldn't enter into treaties w/o consent of U.S.
- The Platt Amendment made Cuba a "protectorate"
- d. 1934 - abrogated the Platt Amendment, but kept the navy
base at Guantanamo
- 3. Philippines (7000 islands)
- (annexed it to "uplift" and Christianize the people and
what if Germany or Japan got it?)
- a. Filipino Insurrection (led by Aguinaldo until his
- 1) 60,000 U.S. troops (under Arthur MacArthur)
- 2) Lasted 3 years, many atrocities!
- 3) 7,000 U.S. casualties, over 20,000 Filipinos, plus
200,000 Filipino civilians!
- 4) Ended with capture of Aguinaldo
- 5) Cost $600 million!
- b. 1900 - William Howard Taft became gov. of
- 1902 - Philippine Government Act - began
"Americanization" of the Philippines (Eng. official lang.,
schools, public works, taught them baseball and basketball)
- a) "Unorganized" territory
- b) Filipinos - citizens of the Philippines
- c) Established gov't similar to Puerto Rico
- 1916 - Jones Act - U.S. gov, rest elected
- 1934 - Tydings-Duffie Act - provided for independence
within 10 years
- attempted to get out of the way of Japan
- they attacked it before we could set it free
- (granted independence on July 4, 1946)
- we kept military bases (Subic Bay and Clark Field)
- they are now gone!
- After the Spanish-American War, the U.S. entered its "Age of
VI. Imperialism in the Far East
- With acquisition of the Philippines, U.S. became more
interested in affairs in Asia
China ("sick man" of Asia)
- 1. China-Japanese War (1894-95) exposed China's weakness
- 2. Europe and Russia and Japan establishing "spheres of
influence"; would we be left out?
- 3. What would the U.S. do?
- 4. Open Door Policy (John Hay)
- a. 1899 - sent "note" to all nations interested in China;
asked them to respect trading rights (equal commercial
- b. While note circulating, "Boxer Rebellion" erupted
in China, "Boxers" killed some 200 missionaries
- 1) International rescue force (20,000, 5000 from U.S.)
- 2) Extracted $333m indemnity ($24m for U.S.)
- c. Hay sent second note - respect China's territorial
Japan (most imperialistic of the Asian nations)
- Russo - Japanese War
- 1. Neither Japan nor Russia respected the Open Door Policy
- 2. 1904 - Japan attacked Russia over Manchuria (China's
- 3. Japan appeared to be winning, but at a terrible cost;
asked U.S. to arbitrate!
- 4. TR called the two to Portsmouth, NH (1905)
- hoped to end the war with a "balance of power" in Asia!
- a. Russia gave up some territory, w/d from Manchuria
- b. Japan did not get an indemnity
- c. TR received the Nobel Peace Prize for his
Treaty of Portsmouth
- 5. Caused a lot of anti-American hostility in Japan; we
returned it! ("yellow peril")
- 6. 1907 - TR sent "Great White Fleet" on 14 month tour to
impress the Japanese
- by now U.S. had second largest navy!
- a. Our new, steel, steam-powered battleships
- b. Japan began plans to build a bigger navy also!
- 7. 1908 - Root-Takahira Agreement - maintain "status quo"
- 8. During WWI, we now become much stronger
VII. Latin American Policy
- 3 Presidents would turn the Caribbean into an "American Lake"
- Policy in Latin America would cause much anti-Yankee
- Goal (of all 3): stability for L.A. countries
- 1. Lots of problems since L.A. countries got their
- a. Social inequality
- b. Not much experience in self-government, nor stability
- c. Extreme concentration of wealth in most countries
- 1) Lots of debts by tenant farmers to wealthy landowners
- 2) Foreign investors took most of the other wealth
- 2. Early U.S. involvement
- a. William Walker's attempt to bring slavery to
- b. Minor Cooper Keith built a "banana republic" in Costa
Rica (brought bananas to U.S.)
- emerged into the United Fruit Company
- 3. Involvement
- a. 1889 - First International American Congress
- 1) U.S. and 17 L.A. nations met in Washington
- 2) Agreed to commercial and cultural exchanges
- 3) This was the first effort at hemispheric cooperation
- 4) Still, Latin America was suspicious!
- b. 1891 - Valparaiso Incident
- 1) U.S. sailors from U.S.S. Baltimore went ashore
to the "Blue Moon" saloon
- 2) Got in a fight, 2 Americans killed, 17 wounded
- 3) Called for an indemnity and an apology, Chile
- 4) Pres. Harrison sent a "war message" to Congress
- 5)Chile agreed to our demands ($75,000)
- 6) Repercussions?
- c. 1895 - Venezuela
- 1) Border dispute between Venezuela and GB (Br. Guiana)
- when gold discovered there
- 2) Pres. Cleveland sent letter to GB when it threatened
- warning them of violating Monroe Doctrine
- 3) U.S. agreed to "arbitrate" a dispute between
Venezuela and GB (Br. Guiana)
- GB got 90% of what it wanted!
- 4) Repercussions?
B. Roosevelt ("big stick" and "gunboat diplomacy")
- "Speak softly and carry a big stick" (an African proverb)
- remember TR was an "active president"; in Latin America, he
had two goals:
- 1) build an inter- oceanic canal
- 2) keep Europe out of Latin America
- 1. Panama Canal
- a. Need for an inter-oceanic canal (took U.S.S.
Oregon 68 days to circle S. Am.)
- b. 1846 - treaty to use Panama for crossing (49'ers used
- c. 1850 - Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (U.S.-GB joint venture)
- d. 1901 - Hay-Pauncefote Treaty - cleared way for U.S. to
- (promised to keep it open to all)
- e. Where to build?
- 1) Nicaragua (Mt. Motombo)
- 2) Panama (owned by Colombia) - Fr. under De'Lesseps had
begun a canal in 1879 (to 1889), but the co. went broke and
half its work force died!
- 3) Volcano eruption on Martinique, killing 1000s
- 4) Philippe Bunau-Varilla (New Panama Canal Co.)
- sent postage stamps to all U.S. Senators!
- f. 1903 - Hay-Herran Treaty with Colombia
- 1) 99 year lease
- 2) $10 million, $250,000 yearly
- 3) Columbia reneged! Wanted $25m bribe!
- 4) TR called them "bandits"; decided to exploit unrest
- (wanted their ind. from Colombia - in 57 years, 53
attempts to break away!)
- 5) Bunau-Varilla visited U.S., met with TR
- g. Revolt
- 1) U.S.S. Nashville sent to keep Col. troops from
- bribed Commander of Col. Navy!
- 2) Nov 3, revolution began; over in 3 days!
- 3) Nov 18 - Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
- -$10m, $250,000 yearly
- -40 mi. long, 10 mi. canal zone
- -U.S. has all rights within the zone
- h. Construction - the "moon shot" of its day
- (U.S. supplied building machines, etc.) - led to a "boom",
- 1) Many problems - yellow fever
- cost $10 per mosquito killed, had to remove dirt -
dams and filled swamps
- William Gorgas (yellow fever)
- George Goethals, an army engineer, took over and got
- 3) Aug 15, 1914 - opened same mo. and yr. as WWI
- 4) Cost $375 million (most expensive at the time)
- 43,000 workers (5600 died), at 10 cents an hr.; temp.
reached 120 by noon!
- i. Significance - for world and U.S.?
- j. Today
- 1) Few changes (7 stories tall!)
- 2) $20,000 to $40,000 to use it (bigger ships won't fit)
- 3) 9 hrs. to pass (12 locks), 52m gallons of water!
- 4) 1977 - treaties to give it back at end of century!
- 2. Expanding the Monroe Doctrine - we needed a L.A. policy for
- protection of the Panama Canal and
- to keep Europe out - collect L.A.'s debts
- a. Latin American nations economically handicapped, made
many bad debts
- b. 1902 - GB and Germany intervened in Venezuela over
- (a threat to the Monroe Doctrine)
- TR sent Dewey and fleet to make a point! GB agree to
arbitration (got money)
- c. 1904 - similar situation in the Dominican Republic
- d. TR - Roosevelt Corollary
- 1) "policeman" of the western hemisphere
- 2) "international bill collector"
- 3) 1904 - used it in the Dominican Republic ($32m
- -U.S. took over customs houses, put DR on a budget!
- -55% of revenue used to repay debts
- -in 2 years, Dom. Rep. on way to eco. recovery (there
- 4) Never ratified by Congress (abrogated in late 20s)
- 5) It would serve as a "model" for the next President
C. Taft - "dollar diplomacy" - to achieve pol. and eco.
- 1. Encouraged U.S. investment
- (would protect investments with out marines if necessary),
in the Caribbean and China
- a. Use peaceful intervention with "dollars instead of
- b. Financial stability = political stability (or so we
- c. Benefits to both U.S. and the other country - keep
- 2. Nicaragua offers best example of "dollar diplomacy"
- a. Revolution inspired by Am. mining interests (1909)
- overthrew Pres. Zelaya (installed Adolfo Diaz)
- b. 1911 - defaulted on its foreign debt
- c. U.S. bankers took control of the economy
- d. When there was resentment, Taft sent in the marines to
keep the peace (2500)
- e. Needed both dollars and bullets!
- 3. Similar developments in Haiti, Honduras, Costa Rica, and
- and much investment in Asia, especially China
- 4. Investments reached the billions!
- 5. Repercussions?
D. Wilson ("moral diplomacy")
- Attempts at morality
- serve God and humanity; but it was "his" morality, his
vision of right and wrong
- 1. Wilson denounced both "dollar diplomacy" and "gunboat
- Wilson believed in "self-gov't", but his predecessors left
a bad legacy in Latin America
- (promised them that the U.S. would never again seek one
additional foot of territory)
- 2. 1914 - new Pan-American League (work at "good will")
- 3. 1914 - treaty with Colombia, giving them $25m for the
way we got Panama
- 4. 1917 - citizenship to island people of Puerto Rico
- 5. 30 "cooling off" treaties
- Gunboat Diplomacy
- However, Wilson found it difficult not to intervene in
- a. Kept marines in Nicaragua
- b. 1915 - sent marines to Haiti
- (Pres. was pulled out of the presidential palace and
torn limb to limb!)
- 2000 Haitians killed!
- c. 1916 - sent marines to the Dominican Republic to
restore order there
- d. 1916 - bought Virgin Islands (Denmark) for $25
- (buffer for protection of Panama Canal)
- Watchful Waiting
- Wilson's dilemma over foreign policy is best seen in
dealing with Mexico
- (aftermath of its "Ragged Revolution", its civil war)
- a. 1911 - Porfirio Diaz overthrown (pro-Am, ruled since
- U.S. had $2 billion invested in Mexico!
- b. Francisco Madero took control of gov't (he was a
- c. Shortly, he was ousted (and assassinated) by his
- Victoriano Huerta (a dictator, but pro-foreign
- Wilson refused to grant recognition (not chosen by
- d. Revolt led by Venustiano Carranza (1913), resulting
in civil war
- e. Wilson decided on a policy of "watchful
- didn't want to use "gunboat diplomacy"
- 1) Embargo on arms to Huerta
- 2) Learned that Germany was supplying him
- 3) Set up a blockade around Veracruz
- 4) Tampico Incident
- -April 9, 1914
- -Sailors from U.S.S. Dolphin arrested!
(sent ashore to buy gasoline)
- - Adm. Mayo demanded release and apology! Huerta
- -Wilson ordered the bombardment of Veracruz
- (60 Am. killed, 500 Mexicans)
- allegedly to stop arms shipment from Germany
(Mex. army resisted our trying to stop the German
ship from landing)
- 5) On verge of war!
- 6) ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) offered to
- -Niagara Falls, Canada
- -Huerta agreed to abdicate
- -Carranza recognized as President
- f. "Pancho" Villa, a follower of Carranza, also
wanted to be Mexico's president
- decided to force U.S. intervention and blame it on
- (and to show that Carranza was not in charge of
- 1) Jan, 1916 - stopped train at Santa Ysabel, killed
16 American engineers!
- 2) March - raided and burned Columbus, New Mexico
- (19 more Americans killed)
- 3) Wilson sent troops under Gen. John Pershing
- 4) Several skirmishes with the Mexican Army
- 5) Remained until he was recalled just prior to U.S.
entry into World War I in Jan, 1917 (had 15,000 troops!)
- g. In 1917, Mexico concluded its revolution (peacefully)
- drafted a constitution
- Wilson granted Carranza "de jure" recognition
Results of Imperialism
- World War I will see an end to progressivism and imperialism.
- Many would claim that World War I was the logical culmination
of world imperialism.
- What did we learn from our venture in imperialism?
- Would we want to return to imperialism after the war?
- What were the effects of U.S. imperialism?
- Was imperialism the right course for the U.S. to follow?
- increased trade
- became a world power
- uplifted foreign populations
- med/tech advances
- death and destruction
- acquisition of territory democratic?
- military experience our business?
- enhanced nationalism - image of U.S.?
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