Chapter 4

The Industrialization of America

(1860 - 1900)

I. Introduction - The Shaping of Modern America

Following the Civil War, the United States experienced a period of tremendous growth. Despite a rather painful "reconstruction" of the North and South, in the thirty years following the war, the U.S. expanded its borders to the Pacific Ocean physically; economically, the U.S. was transformed from an agricultural to an industrial nation. The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of "Modern America".

A. Daily Life In 1860 and 1900

B. A Society Transformed

C. Factors that encouraged Industrial Growth or Expansion

(Brainstorm: What things would be necessary for industrial expansion?)

1. Natural Resources (especially the valuable minerals found in the West)

2. Growing Population (30m in 1860; 76m in 1900)

3. Capital from Europe (speculation), Western minerals, and Corporations

4. New Inventions

5. Technological Developments

6. Improved Transportation

7. Improved Communication

8. New Sources of Power (petroleum and electricity)

9. New Ways of Selling - Advertising

10. Government Policies

11. New Business Practices (ways of doing business)

II. Industries and Inventions

A. The Steel Industry

B. The Birth of American Railroads

C. The First Transcontinental Railroad

D. An Empire of Rails

E. Energy from Oil

E. Energy from Electricity

F. The Telephone and Telegraph

III. The Rise of Big Business

A. Corporations

B. The Case of Standard Oil

C. Captains of Industry

D. Andrew Carnegie's World of Steel

"Vertical Integration"

"Horizontal Integration"

E. Kellogg, Post, and the Cereal Wars

G. The Food Industry did improve diets for workers in the city

F. Isaac Singer and the Sewing Machine

G. Other methods of selling

IV. Government and Business

A. Laissez-Faire Capitalism

A. The Morrill Tariff - 1861

B. Banking

C. Education

D. Postal Reform

E. Government Incentives to Business

F. Is Bigger Better?

G. Corporations and the Courts

H. Early Federal Regulations

V. Results of Industrial Growth

The Effects of Industrialization - Brainstorm

Categorize into political, economic, and social areas

Industrialization brought many changes to the United States.

Some historians say that such rapid industrialization came at a heavy price.

Our next unit will deal with attempts to correct some of the abuses associated with industrialization GILDED AGE

Impact of the Industrial Revolution

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