The Arizona Apache Wars
I. The Apache’s were considered the best fighters of all the Indians in America.
II. Apache’s had prevented the Spanish from exerting control of much of the New Mexico/Arizona area for many years.
III. First contact with US soldiers occurred in 1862, and was followed my many small battles and several massacres of Indians.
IV. Spring, 1871: 500 Apaches seek peace with the US
V. 30 April 1871: 144 Apaches, mostly women and children seeking peace treaty are killed while sleeping in their camp (led by Americans, but the raiding party included many Mexicans and other Indians).
VI. General George Crook replaces General George Stoneman as leader of US forces against the Apaches.
VII. May 1872—new peace talks called for and held. December 1872—Apache Indian Reservation is established.
VIII. Many Apache tribes are pacified, but some remain at war with the US
IX. Apache’s on the reservation are not happy. Terrible conditions, confinement, bad food.
X. 1877—Apache’s under Vittorio break out from reservation and resume life of raiding and hors stealing. Are pursued by US and Mexican armies.
XI. 1880—this group is found and massacred, with only a few survivors.
XII. Summer 1881—Apache warriors under Geronimo escape from reservation and resume the old ways of life.
XIII. Geronimo and his group eluded US and Mexican armies for almost 6 years.
XIV. Geronimo surrenders, 4 September 1886. Is transported to Oklahoma, where he died in 1909.