The Flight of the Nez Perce


I.                       1855: US Govt. Negotiates Treaties with Several Tribes In the Northwest, Including the Nez Perce.


II.                   Nez Perce were give 7,000,000 acres of land in what is now Idaho.


III.               By 1863, encroachment of whites on Indian lands leads to conflict. Govt. reduces size of reservation by 90%.


IV.                 Many Nez Perce reject this new reservation, refuse to sign treaty.


V.                      10 years of sporadic (occasional) conflict, erupting finally in the Battle of White Bird Canyon, 17 June 1877.


VI.                 Nez Perce, under Chief Joseph, flee to Montana, believing that the Army simply wanted them out of Idaho.


VII.             After a peaceful voyage through the Bitterroot  Valley in Montana, US Troops from Montana began their pursuit. Several battles were fought, with the Nez Perce winning all.


VIII.         Chief Joseph eventually led his people to the Bear Paw Mountains in Northern Montana, just 30 miles from the Canadian Border. Thought he was in Canada.


IX.                 Is surrounded there by the US Army. Some escape to Canada, but most are captured and sent to Oklahoma.


X.                    Within 2 years, almost all Nez Perce sent to Oklahoma are dead from starvation.