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United States History Since 1865

Study Guide

Chapter 18   19   20  21  22   23   24  25  26  27  28  29 30  31  32  33   34  35  36  37


Chapter 18

1. Describe the condition of the nation in 1865 as a result of the Civil War.

A. Describe the devastation of the war.
B. Identify the major issues of Reconstruction.
C. Describe the social revolution taking place in the in the nation
D. Identify and describe Northern congressional enactments during the Civil War.
E. Describe the following aspects of the war's devastation in the South.
          1. Physical devastation
          2. Property values collapsed
          3. Economic effects of the loss of slaves
          4. Changed role of white women
          5. Emigration
          6. Residual defiance in the South
F. Discuss the status of freed blacks after the war.
          1. What resources did freed blacks have?
          2. Why Congress was hesitant to distribute land?
          3. What happened to confiscated southern lands?
          4. Describe the work of the Freedmen's Bureau.
2. Compare and contrast the Reconstruction plans of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson and the Radicals in Congress.
A. What was the plan for the loyal counties of Virginia?
B. How were military governors to be used in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana?
C. What was Lincoln's plan of Reconstruction?
          1. What were its provisions?
          2. How was it implemented in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana?
          3. What was Congressional reaction to Lincoln's plans?
          4. Describe the counterclaims of Lincoln and Congress.
          5. What was the Wade-Davis Bill?
          6. What was Lincoln's response to the Wade-Davis Bill?
          7. Describe Lincoln's final statement on Reconstruction.
C. Identify the provisions of Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
          1. Why did he want to end land redistribution?
          2. What actions taken to implement Johnson's plan?
          3. Describe Southern intransigence to presidential reconstruction
          4. Describe Congressional reaction to Southern states
D. Identify the following with respect to the Radical Republicans in Congress
          1. Joint Committee on Reconstruction
          2. The motivation of the Radicals
          3. Constitutional theories of status of Southern states
3. Assess the Radical southern governments and their accomplishments.
A. Identify the conditions for readmission of southern states.
B. Identify the duration of Radical control.
C. Describe the role of the Union League prior to Reconstruction.
D. Describe the role of military service in developing African-American leadership.
E. Describe the development of independent African-American churches.
F. Describe the development of African-American fraternal and benevolent societies.
G. Discuss the affirmation of African-American family life.
H. Describe the development of schools.
          1. Why did the white elite fear of the effects of education?
          2. Identify the extent of Northern assistance
I. Discuss African-Americans in southern politics.
          1.Identify the characteristics of African-American control.
          2.Discuss the disagreements among African-Americans.
          3.Describe the extent of African-American control.
J. Identify the carpetbaggers and scalawags.
K. Describe the achievements of the Radical governments
L. Describe the corruption and abuse in Radical governments
M. Discuss the development of white terror techniques
4. Explain the policy and viewpoint which Andrew Johnson appeared to follow in regard to southern governments. Why was his plan not successful?

5. Assess the significance of the Fourteenth Amendment, discussing why it was needed, its major provisions, and its long-range impact.  Consider the following:

A. Provisions and impact of black codes
B. Congress overrides veto of the Civil Rights Act
C. The Fourteenth Amendment
D. Race riots in the South
E. Identify the major objections to black participation in government
F. Explain the role of the Ku Klux Klan
G. Enforcement Acts to protect black voters
H. Describe the end of Reconstruction, in particular
          1. The crumbling of African-American rights.
          2. The enduring legacy of the Reconstruction period.
6. Discuss the impeachment of Andrew Johnson including the charges against the president, the outcome of the proceedings, and the implications of the outcome for the future.
A. What was the Radicals' perception of Johnson?
B. Explain the failure of early efforts to impeach him.
C. Identify what Johnson did in violation of Tenure of Office Act.
D. Identify the major articles of impeachment (charges).
E. Describe the Senate trial.
F. Discuss the ramifications of the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
7. What sorts of problems occurred during the Grant administration?
A. Describe the scandals that occurred during the period, including
          1. Jay Gould's effort to corner the gold market.
          2. The Credit-Mobilier.
          3. Other scandals.
          4. The roles played by Grant administration appointees.
          5. Grant's personal role in the scandals
B. Discuss the economic panic of 1873.
          1. What were the causes for depression?
          2. How severe was the depression?
C. Describe efforts to respond to the panic, including
          1. The reissue of greenbacks.
          2. Resumption of specie payments approved in1875.
8. Discuss the complications of the election of 1876 and explain the basis on which the outcome was decided.
A. Identify the reasons for the elimination of Grant and Blaine.
B. Describe the views of the parties and their candidates Hayes and Tilden.
C. Describe the results of the popular vote and why the election was disputed.
D. Discuss the role of the Electoral Commission.
E. Describe the Wormley House bargain.
          1. What promises were made by each side?
          2. What promises were fulfilled and filled and which were unfilled?
Chapter 19

1. What were the characteristics of economic development in the South after Reconstruction?

A. Describe the concept of the New South espoused by Henry Grady and others.
B. Describe economic growth in the following areas:
          1. Cotton textile manufacturing
          2. Tobacco industry
          3. Coal production
          4. Lumbering
          5. Petroleum and hydroelectric power production
C. Describe the features of agriculture in the New South.
2. Why were the Bourbon Redeemers important in the post-Civil War South?
A. What was the nature of the Bourbons?
B. What were the characteristics of Bourbon economic policies ?
C. What were the positive contribution of the Bourbons?
D. Describe the political activities of the Southern Democrats and the Southern Republicans.
          1. What was the nature of the "mongrel coalition"?
          2. What was the basis for independent political movements?
          3. What efforts were made for Republican and independent collaboration?
2. How did relations between African Americans and whites change after the Civil War?
A. Why did Bourbon-African American political compatibility exist?
B. Describe the variety of color lines in social relations.
C. What were the consequences of a large body of disenfranchised blacks?
D. How and why did segregation spread throughout the South?
          1. Discuss some of the civil rights cases, 1883
          2. Summarize the Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
E. Describe the pattern of violence against blacks.
3. Explain how the sharecropping and tenant systems worked in southern agriculture.
A. What were the features of sharecropping and tenancy?
B. What was the impact of the crop lien system?
4. Contrast the visions of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois for freed blacks.
A. Describe the approach advocated by Booker T. Washington.
B. Describe the approach advocated by W. E. B. Du Bois.
5. Describe the various aspects of cattle ranching and their effects on the settlement of the West.
A. Describe the pattern of frontier settlement.
B. Why was the trans-Mississippi West regarded as the Great American Desert?
C. What people were most likely to join the migration to the West?
D. Describe the features of mining on the frontier and the role of mining in creating new states.
E. Describe the features of the cattle industry in the West. Why did the cattle industry become more important after the Civil War?
F. Describe the development of small farms on the frontier and the land policies that encouraged small farming.
G. Why did cattle ranchers and small farmers come into conflict?
6. Describe the effects on Indians of expansion of white settlements in the West.
A. How did the United States arrive at a policy of displacement of the Indians?
          1. Discuss the agreement for tribal limitations, 1851.
          2. What role was played by conflicts that arose during the Civil War?
          3. Describe the policies of and agreements made by the Indian Peace
          4. Describe the continued resistance of Indians, including
                a. Massacre at Little Big Horn
                b. Conquest of Sioux and others
                c. Chief Joseph and Nez Perce
                d. Ghost Dance movements
B. What was the impact of annihilation of buffalo herds?
C. What efforts were made for reform in Indian policy? Why?
D. Describe the provisions of the Dawes Severalty Act, 1887. What impact did it have?
7. Compare the lives of southern sharecroppers and western sodbusters. Which was easier and more profitable?
A. What were the features of sharecropping and tenancy? How did the crop lien system impact the lives of sharecroppers?
B. Describe farm life on the Great Plains, including its difficulties, the role of women, and farming technologies and planting strategies
8.How helpful is Turner's thesis in explaining what is distinctive about the United States?
A. What other theories or views of Western history exist?
B. Which do you think best explains the variety of features of Western history between Reconstruction and 1900?
Chapter 20

1.List and explain the factors that promoted the growth of industry in the United States in the late nineteenth century.

A. What were the general characteristics of growth and corporate development?
B. Describe the pattern of railroad building, the development of transcontinental railroads, and the means of financing railroad construction.
C. Describe the roles played by Jay Gould and Cornelius Vanderbilt in expanding transportation.
D. What new technologies were important to the growth and expansion of the economy in the period between 1865 and 1900?
E. Describe the economic role and importance at least one of one of the following:
John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, J. P. Morgan.
2.What was the relationship among inventors, entrepreneurs, and great wealth in the late nineteenth century United States? Give several examples.

3. Describe the early American labor movement.

A. Why was there violence in early labor union activity? Discuss the Molly Maguires, the railroad strike of 1877, and the "Sand Lot" incident.
B. Describe early efforts at union building by the National Labor Union and the Knights of Labor. How did the Knights of Labor have a lasting influence?
3.Why was the Pullman Strike of 1894 important? What caused it? What impact did the events have on the role of government in labor disputes and on a young labor leader Eugene V. Debs?

4.Compare the goals and methods of the American Federation of Labor and the Industrial Workers of the World.

A. Describe the membership and goals of the American Federation of Labor and the role played by Samuel Gompers in its early years.
B. Explain the rise of the IWW. What were its goals? What was its source of strength? Why did it go into decline?
5.Explain the appeal of socialism and other forms of radicalism to some American workers.  How did the following contribute to the more radical labor unions:
A. disparities between rich and poor,
B. the degree of social mobility,
C. the living and working conditions of ordinary workers,
D. the development of corporate bureaucracies.
Chapter 21

1.Who peopled the growing U.S. cities and why did they move there?

A. What groups of native-born Americans were most likely to populate urban areas and which were most likely to move toward the frontier?
B. From where were immigrants to the United States most likely to come? What factors made coming to the Untied States a more attractive alternative than remaining in their native countries?
2.What were the new problems found in urban areas, and how did politicians and reformers try to deal with them?
A. Discuss the criticism of society and proposals for reform advanced by such people as Henry George and Henry Demarest Lloyd.
B. How was the women's movement linked to urban problems?
C. Describe the relationship between urbanization and the development of the political machine.
D. Describe political attempts at reform that stemmed in whole or in part from urban problems.
3.Compare the policies of social Darwinism and reform Darwinism regarding such public issues as public education and regulation of business.
A. What positions on change in the education system were consistent with hard core social Darwinist and reform Darwinist ideologies?
B. Why did social Darwinists favor laissez faire economics rather than greater economic regulation?
C. Show how the social gospel reflects reform Darwinist prionciples.
4.What was the settlement-house movement and what were its effects?
A. What role did settlement houses play in addressing urban problems?
B. What impact did the settlement house movement have on the profession of social work?
5.How did "realism" affect learning and literature?
A. What elements of local color and literary naturalism reflect a "realistic" perspective?
B. Show how the literary naturalists were influenced by social Darwinism.
Chapter 22

1.What were the main characteristics of the "third political system"?

2.Compare the presidencies of Rutherford B. Hayes and Grover Cleveland.

A. Identify Hayes' stand on the need for civil service reform? What rules did he create for appointments.
B. What problems did Hayes have to deal with as president?
C. Describe Hayes' version of government activism.
D. What was Cleveland's view of the role of government?
E. What problems did the Cleveland administration have to deal with?
F. What was Cleveland's stand on the need for civil service reform?
3.How did people at the grassroots level disagree with their leaders over what the crucial issues were in the Gilded Age? Which issues were most important?
A. What sorts of problems were faced by farmers?
B. What effects did the deflation and tariff policies have on the working class?
C. Why did both political parties take evasive stands on most issues during the 1870s and 1880s?
4.What issues divided the Republicans in the 1870s and 1880s?
A. What positions were taken by the "Stalwarts" and "Half-Breeds"?
B. Who were the "Mugwumps" and what did they advocate?
C. What positions did Republican factions take on the gold standard?
5.Explain the specific problems faced by many farmers in the late nineteenth century. What did each of the following contribute to the problems of farmers?
A. Railroads
B. Tariffs
C. Falling prices for agricultural products
D. Currency deflation
6.Describe the programs advocated by the Populist party in the 1890s. How would you judge their success?
A. What was the relationship between the Greenback Party and the Populist Party?
B. What were the main positions taken by the Populists on gold vs. silver, tariffs, regulation, and other issues?
C. What positions taken by the Populists were later adopted by one of the major parties?



Chapter 23

1.  Describe three arguments Americans used to justify their imperialism in the late nineteenth century.

A. How did economic interests and needs for products and markets help to justify imperialism
1. What role was played by sealing and whaling industries?
2. How did missionaries contribute to developing ideas about the commercial use of colonies?
3. What role in acquiring Hawaii was played by trade agreements and the revolution sponsored by the Dole interests?
B. What role was played by Alfred T. Mahan's vision of sea power and oceanic trade routes.
C. How did the ideas associated with Social Darwinism contribute to the motivation to develop colonies?
D. What role was played by religious goals and missionary activity?
2.Discuss the U.S. military actions in the Spanish-American War.
A. Describe the naval action and the U.S. victory at Manila Bay
B. Why did the U. S. set up the Cuban blockade?
1.What problems did the army encounter?
2. What role was played by the Rough Riders?
3. Describe the Siege of Santiago.
C. What were the terms of the armistice?
3.What were the major results of the Spanish-American War?
A. Describe the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Paris.
1. Discuss the U. S.'s motives for annexation of the Spanish colonies.
2. Identify the major terms of the final treaty.
B. Identify the other territorial acquisitions made in the same era as the Spanish-American War.
C. Describe the debate over ratification of the Treaty of Paris.
1. Identify the anti-imperialist arguments.
2. How did the debate affect William Jennings Bryan's support for a bid for the presidency?
3. Discuss the ratification process for the treaty.
4.Explain the debate over imperialism after the Spanish-American War.
A. Identify what guerilla war in Philippines contributed to the debate.
B. What arguments were put forth by the Anti-Imperialist League?
C. How did the U. S. organizing its new acquisitions?
1. Describe the governing of the Philippines under Taft.
2. Describe the civil government in Puerto Rico.
3. Identify the Insular Cases and their contribution to the debate.
4. How did the situation in Cuba contribute to the debate?

5.How did United States policy in Latin America change between 1890 and 1912?

A. What was the Platt Amendment and what were its implications for U. S. policy?
B. What part did insurrections in colonies play in changing U. S. policy?
C. What was the Roosevelt Corollary and to what was it a corollary?

6.Trace developments leading to the acquisition of the Panama Canal.

A. Why did the U. S. believe there was a need for the canal?
B. Describe the negotiations with the British and French and the difficulties with Columbia over acquiring a canal zone. How did the negotiations end?
C. Describe the Panamanian revolution.
D. Describe the construction of the canal.
E. What were the legacies of the events leading up to the construction of the canal and the construction of the canal?
7.Compare our foreign policies toward Cuba and China around the turn of the century.
 A. What was the Open Door Policy and why did the U.S. want an "open door"?
 B. Was the U. S. also willing to have an "open door" in Cuba?
 C. Describe Hay's policy.
Chapter 24

1.What were the antecedents to progressivism and why were they important?

A. What did Populism contribute to the development of Progressivism?
B. What use did the Progressives make of ideas developed by the .Mugwumps, Socialists, and Muckrakers?
2.Explain the various solutions that progressives proposed to deal with the problems of giant corporations.
A. Why was a program of complete laissez-faire advocated by some Progressives?
B. Why did the Progressives support the Socialist program of public ownership of utilities and possibly other industries?
C. Why did Progressives accept the ideas of trust-busting and and regulation of big business?
D. What sorts of problems existed in trying to regulate the regulators?
3.What caused the split between Taft and Roosevelt?
A. Describe the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy .
B. What were Ballinger's actions that had the effect of undoing Roosevelt's policies?
C. What was the impact of the affair on the relationship between Taft and Roosevelt?
D. What was Taft's role in the rebellion against Speaker Cannon?
4.Who were the candidates and what were their positions on the issues in the1912 presidential election?
A. Why did Roosevelt lead the creation of the Progresssive Party?
B. What was the effect on the Republican voters of having a third party led by Roosevelt?
C. How did the presence of a third party affect the outcome of the election?
5.Was Theodore Roosevelt or Wilson the more successful progressive president? Explain your answer.
A. List the major achievements of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency.
B. List the achievements of Woodrow Wilson's presidency.
C. On balance, which accomplished more of the goals Progressives sought to achieve?
D. To what extent did Wilson build on the efforts of earlier progressive successes achieved by Roosevelt and Taft?
6.In what ways was the progressive movement paradoxical?
A. How did Progressive reforms increase the extent of disenfranchisement of southern African Americans?
B. How were democratic reforms manipulated to result in less participation in elections?
C. What was the "downside" to creating a civil service bureaucracy?
Chapter 25

1.Compare Wilson's policies toward Mexico and toward Germany from 1913 to 1917.

A. Describe the U. S. intervention in Mexico. Did the U. S. help to overthrow Diaz?
B. What was the effect of non-recognition of the Huerta government?
C. Why did the U. S. invade Vera Cruz? Why did the U. S. Army pursue Pancho Villa?
D. Why did the U. S. decide to remain neutral in the face of German aggression in Europe?
E. Describe U. S. efforts to mediate during the war in Europe.
2.Was the United States really neutral between 1914 and 1917?
A. What actions of the U. S. were consistent with its official policy of neutrality?
B. What actions of the U. S. were actions supporting a party to the war in Europe?
3.What military role did the United States play in World War I?
A. What was the role of U. S. forces early in the period of U. S. participation.
B. In what battles was the U. S. contribution significant or decisive?
4.Generally, what were the Fourteen Points? Why were they important and controversial?
A. Summarize the Fourteen Points.
B. Why was the League of Nations an important element of Wilson's peace plan?
C. Why were Americans not very receptive to Wilson's plan? What role was played by Henry Cabot Lodge in defeating Wilson's program and the U. S. acceptance of the League?
5. What was the Red Scare after the World War I and what caused it?
A. Why did fear of radicals in politics and labor unions increase as World War I ended?
B. What were the Palmer raids? Did the government engage in violations of laws and civil liberties in carrying out the raids?
C.  How and why did the Red Scare end?
Chapter 26

1.What did the KKK, prohibitionists, fundamentalists, and opponents of immigration have in common? How were their attitudes similar?

2. How were women involved in the social and cultural changes of the post-World War I era?

A. What role did women play in the temperance movement, the campaign for labor legislation, and social justice issues other than women's suffrage?
B. What is meant by the "Front Door Lobby?" How were the methods women used to try to get Congress to pass the Suffrage Amendment different from the lobbying strategies generally used by business interests?
3.Describe the changes that occurred in black life and culture in years after World War I.
A. When and why did a major migration of Blacks from South to North begin?
B. What was the Harlem Renaissance and why was it culturally important?
C. What is meant by Black Nationalism and how was it connected to religion?
4.Explain the contributions of Freud, Marx, Einstein, and Heisenberg to the new mood of the 1920s.
A. Briefly summarize what is meant by determinism and how the ideas of Marx and Freud were deterministic.
B. Briefly summarize the central idea of the Theory of Relativity and tell why it was important culturally, not just scientifically.
C. Briefly summarize the central idea of the Uncertainty Principle and tell why it was important culturally, not just scientifically.
5.What were the chief features of modernist literature? Show how those features were exhibited in the works of one of the authors mentioned in the text.
A. Who were the major American writers of the post-World War I era? What were some of the central themes of their works?
B. What kinds of differences were there in the writing of the period 1915-1930 as compared to the writing of the late 19th century?
6.Compare the programs of the NAACP and the UNIA.
A. What were the primary objectives of the NAACP? Who were its leaders? From what groups did it draw its membership and support?
B. What were the primary objectives of the UNIA? Who were its leaders? From what groups did it draw its membership and support?
7.How did changes in scientific thinking affect social and literary thought?
A. How were the ideas of determinism, uncertainty and relativity reflected in the literature and popular culture of the post-World War I era?
B. How did these ideas affect polular attitudes?

Chapter 27

1.What happened to progressivism in the 1920s?

A. Why did Congressional support for the Progressive agenda decline in the early 1920s? Identiy at least five contributing factors.
B. What elements of Progressivism and its agenda remained?
C. Why did support for Progressive measures begin to pick up support again as the 1920s drew to a close?
2.What is mass production and what changes did it bring in the 1920s?
A. What was the impact of changes made in production methods by Ford and Flanders?
B. What was the impact of "scientific management"?
C. What were the effects of these on labor and labor organizations?
3.Of the three presidential elections in the 1920s, which was the most significant and which was the least important?
A. With respect to the election of 1920, describe the following:
1. The mood of the country
2. Republican shift to the right
3. Democratic nomination contest
4. The campaign
5. The results of the election
B. With respect to the election of 1924, describe the following:
1. Coolidge's control of the Republican party
2. Dissension among the Democrats
3. The re-emergence of the Progressive party
4. Results of the election
C. With respect to the election of 1928, describe the following
1. Republican position
2. The Democratic choice
3. Third parties in the election
4. Issues of the election
5. The results of the election
4.Describe the health of U.S. agriculture in the 1920s and evaluate the efforts to help farmers.
A. Identify the reasons for the agricultural slump.
B. Describe the status of mechanization of farms.
C. What kinds of new farm organizations and farmer-oriented interest groups came into being and why?
D. Describe legislation passed that was favorable to agriculture.
5.What factors contributed to the collapse of the U.S. economy at the end of the 1920s?
A. Describe the speculative mania that occurred during the 1920s, especially he Florida real estate bubble, the development of the Great Bull Market, and the efforts to curb the market.
B. Describe the crash. Identify its causes and its immediate effects.

6.How did Hoover's ideas of "rugged individualism" and "associationalism" affect his policies to deal with the collapse of the economy?


Chapter 28

1. Describe the policy initiatives of the first hundred days.

A.Describe the initial efforts to re-define public policy.
1. What banking and economic reforms were tried?
2. What was the "bank holiday" and why was it declared?
3. What was the Emergency Banking Act intended to do?
4. What were the goals of the Economy Act?
5. Why was it important to begin refinancing farm and home mortgages?
6. What permanent reforms were made in banking and stock markets?
7. Why was the "gold standard" abandoned?
B. What sorts of relief measures were created for individuals?
1. What was the Civilian Conservation Corps ?
2. What was the task of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration?
3. What was the Civil Works Administration and what did it do?

2. Who were the chief opponents of the New Deal and what were their objections?

A. Why did the Supreme Court negate the processing tax of the AAA? What other roadblocks did the Supreme Court set in the way of the New Deal? How did Roosevelt deal with Supreme Court opposition to the New Deal measures?
B. What objections to raised to the NRA codes?
C. What criticisms of the early New Deal were made by the left and right wings of the political spectrum?
D. Why did conservatives launch the American Liberty League?
E. Why did such people as Huey Long, Francis Townsend, and Father Coughlin represent a threat?
F. Why was there growing interest in Communism during the 1930s?
G. Why did Americans generally fear an "unbalanced" budget?
3. What were the major New Deal policies toward labor and agriculture?
A. Why was the Wagner Act an important policy in labor-management relations?
1. Why was there increased union activity during the depression?
2. What sorts of management techniques were most objectionable during the depression?
B. What sorts of options were available under the first and second AAA programs?
C. Why was it important to prevent greater surpluses?
D. What was the purpose of the Commodity Credit Corporation?
E. What was the "Dust Bowl" and why did it create a migration?
4. What were the effects of the Depression and New Deal on the lives of ordinary U.S. citizens ?
A. What was the general level of unemployment and why did it persist?
B.What were the effects if crime, suicide, divorce, and desertion during the Depression era?
C.What was the significance of postponing marriage and child bearing?
D. What were the effects of the Depression on children?
E. How was economic hardship manifested in race relations?
5. What were the major and enduring accomplishments of FDR and the New Deal?
A. Identify the employment programs of the New Deal.
B. Describe the efforts to bring about recovery through regulation.
C. Identify the major programs of the Social Security Act.
D. Identify the major new types of agricultural programs begun during the New Deal.
E. Identify at least five agencies other than welfare agencies created during the New Deal which have been important in protecting citizens since their creation.
6. Describe the impact of the Depression and New Deal on participants in government programs.

Chapter 29

1. Compare U.S. foreign policy in the 1930s with the 1920s.

A. What was the nature and extent of isolationism in each decade?
B. What was the nature of U. S. relations with the League of Nations in each decade?
C. What problems with the reparations plans and debt structure created after World War I were becoming apparent in the 1930s?
2. Describe efforts the U. S. made to achieve peace and disarmament during the 1920s.
A. What was the goal of the Washington Armaments Conference?
B. Discuss the terms of the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
3. Describe U.S. relations with Japan and Latin America.
A. What was the cause of strain in U. S.-Japanese relations?
B. Why were relations with Latin American nations strained?
C. Describe the Good Neighbor policy and steps the U. S. took to implement it.
4. Describe the patterns of aggression in Europe and Asia between 1935 and 1940.
A. Describe at least eight trouble spots in the world where there was active aggression between 1935 and 1940.
B. How did the U. S. modify the Monroe Doctrine?
C. What was the Stimson doctrine and how did it apply?
D. Why did Roosevelt refuse to support the London Economic Conference?
5. Discuss efforts to maintain U. S. neutrality during the 1930s.
A. Why did Congress pass the Neutrality Act of 1935?
B. Why did it then pass a second Neutrality Act?
C. What was the official U. S. policy on intervention in civil wars in foreign countries?
D. Did the administration follow the policies set by Congress?
6. What were the effects of the Great Depression on U.S. foreign policy?

7. Discuss the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and its consequences.

A. What was the nature of U. S.-Japanese diplomatic discussions before Pearl Harbor?
B. Could the attack have been avoided or the U. S. prepared for the attack before it occurred?
8. What were the events that led up to U.S. involvement in World War II?
A. How did U. S. support of Britain and its allies in the period before the U. S. entered the war parallel its favoring Britain in the years before its entry into World War I?
B. How was the U. S. preparing for war before Pearl Harbor?
C. Why did the Untied States declare war on Germany as well as Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
Chapter 30

1. Describe the war in Europe and Africa before the Normandy Invasion.

A. What had the Germans accomplished before the U. S. entry into the war?
B. What was the role of the Italians and other German allies?
2. Describe American mobilization for war in the wake of Pearl Harbor.
A. What was the role of the War Production Board and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?
B. How was money raised to support the war?
C. Why were wages and prices frozen, rationing adopted, and certain industries seized?
D. Describe the roles of minority populations and women in the war effort?
E. Why were Japanese-Americans put in concentration camps?
3. Discuss the outcomes of Allied leadership conferences at Casablanca, Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam the importance of the decisions made at each.

4. How did World War II affect the western states of the United States?

A. How did the economy of the west coast states change?
B. How did the population and other demographic characteristics change?
5. What were the effects of the war on major American minority groups?

6. Why was the issue of opening a second front a significant one for military planners?  What resources are needed to fight on several fronts at once?

7. How did the death of Roosevelt affect the war effort?

8. Why did the United States develop and drop the atomic bomb?

Chapter 31

1. Why is assessing Harry Truman's success as president difficult?

2. What was the central objective of the policy of "containment"?

A. Summarize George Kennan's theory of why and how the U. S. should respond to the spread of communism.
B. What was the Truman Doctrine?
3. What were the major features of U.S. policy toward Germany after WWII?
A. How was Germany partitioned?
B. How did the Marshal Plan work and how well did it succeed?
C. Discuss the fairness of the Nuremberg trials.
4. Identify the main points of the Fair Deal. How much of the Fair Deal became law? Why?

5. How and why did the U. S. get involved in the Korean War?

A. What effect did involvement in the war have on the post-war economic problems of the U. S. ?
B. What effect did involvement in the war have on the Truman presidency?
6. Discuss the clash between Truman and MacArthur.
A. According to the Constitution, who is commander-in-chief of the military? Why did the Founding Fathers set it up that way?
B. Why did so many Americans support MacArthur? Should they have supported his actions?
7. Describe the interaction of U.S. foreign policy and domestic affairs in the postwar years.
A. How did anti-Communism become a part of domestic policy? What were the results of that?
B. What effects did the Cold War have on the U. S. economy?
Chapter 32

1. Discuss the economic growth and prosperity in the postwar period. Why did the U. S. economy begin to boom in the late 1940s and early 1950s?

2. Describe the new consumer culture of the post-war period.

A. What roles were played by new inventions of the period such as television, shopping malls, and credit cards?
B. What did the suburban revolution contribute to the consumer culture?
3. Discuss conformity in the postwar American culture.
A. What did the suburban revolution contribute to the conformist impulses of the period?
B. How did religion contribute to the conformist emphasis of the period?
4. Discuss the social gospel after World War II.
A. How did the emphasis shift from earlier in the century?
B. What is "neo-orthodoxy" and why did it appear?
5. Discuss the criticisms made by contemporary critics of life in the 1950s.
A. What sorts of criticisms were made by scholars and professors?
B. How did criticism manifest itself in mainstream literature and art?
6. Who were "The Beats" and what were their major concerns about life in the 1950s?


Chapter  33

1.Compare the New Deal period with the Eisenhower administration.

2.What factors contributed to the fall of Senator McCarthy?

        A. What accounts for the fact that McCarthy found so much support in the first place?
        B. How did McCarthy take advantage of new types of media?

3.What were the chief characteristics of U.S. foreign policy under Eisenhower and Dulles?

        A. What is the "Domino Theory?"
        B. How did Eisenhower's use of the military abroad compare to current use of hte military?

4.Trace the United States' involvement in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1960.

5.What were the major events in the civil rights role did the Eisenhower administration play in them?  Why were active duty troops used instead of the National Guard in Little Rock?

6.How did the United States respond to the major foreign policy crises of 1956? What determined the responses?

7.Was Eisenhower a successful president? Explain and defend your answer.

Chapter 34

1.Compare the personal backgrounds and personalities of John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.

        A. Given their dislike of one another, why were the two on the same ticket?
        B. What were Johnson's functions as vice-president?

2.Assess President Kennedy's successes and failures in foreign policy.

3.Was Lyndon Johnson more effective president in domestic or foreign policy? Why?

4.Trace U.S. involvement in Vietnam from 1961 to 1986.

5.Discuss the changes in the civil rights movement from 1960 to 1968.

        A. Why was there so much racial discontent during the summer of 1967?
        B. Why did the civil rights movement split into several camps varying in degrees to which they
        would use or condone the use of violence?

6.Account for the election of Richard Nixon in 1968.

Chapter 35

1.Compare and contrast the New Left and the counterculture.

2.Evaluate the accomplishments of the women's movement in the 1960s and 1970s.

        A. Compare the women's movement of this period with that of the late 19th and early 20th
        B. Compare the accomplishments of the women's movement with that of the civil rights

3.What was Nixon's secret plan to end the Vietnam war and did it work?

4.How did the Nixon administration deal with "stagflation"?

5.How did Nixon try to appeal to the "Silent Majority" with his domestic policies? Did he succeed?

6.How important were Nixon's diplomatic achievements with China and Russia? Could a Democrat have achieved the same gains? Explain.

7.What effects did the Watergate affair have on the Ford and Carter administrations? Explain.

8.What were the shortcomings and weaknesses of Jimmy Carter and his administration?

Chapter  36

1.How successful were the economic policies of the Republican administrations of the 1980s?

2.Who did the United States support in Central America? Why?

3.Explain why some people consider the 1980s a time of greed and corruption in U.S. life.

        A. What is meant by "white collar crime"?
        B. What harm to the public in general was done by white collar criminals in the 1980s/

4.What happened to the Cold War in the 1980s and why?

5.Describe the background and results of the Gulf War of 1990-1991.

Chapter 37

1.Explain why Bill Clinton was elected instead of George H. W. Bush in 1992.

2.In domestic policy, what were the successes and setbacks of the Clinton administration?

3.Compare Clinton's foreign policy to George H. W. Bush's.

4.What forces contributed to the Republican congressional landslide in 1992?

5.Who were the new immigrants to the United States in the 1980s, and what effects did they have on American society?


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